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FAA Flight Instructor, CFI, CFII. MEII
Cert. No. 602054488
044 450 56 50
020 Aircraft General Knowledge
040 Menschl. Leistungsverm.
070 Operational Procedure
This effect results from the refraction of the radio waves when propagating above different agents as water and land. Due to the different conductivity of the two agents the velocity of propagation is changing. The direction and amount of the error is determined by the angle between radio beam and coastline, topography of the coastline, distance between receiver, point of refraction and the altitude ( the higher , the smaller is error ).